|First Author (Ref. #)||N||Baseline Characteristics||Strain Analysis||Salient Results|
|Mean Age, yrs||Females (%)||LVEF (%)||Technical Details||Outcome||Independent Predictor of Events||Other Key Findings|
|Bellavia (8)||249 Systemic AL||63||38||62||Vivid 7, GE Vingmed Ultrasound AS, Horten; EchoPAC, GE Vingmed Ultrasound AS||ACD||Peak basal anteroseptal LS ≥−7.5%||Peak longitudinal systolic basal anteroseptal strain ≤−7.5% defined a high-risk group of patients|
|Koyama (3)||119 Systemic AL||58||47||LVFS, 37||Vivid Five System, Vingmed-GE; Vivid Five System, Echopac 6.3.6, GE Vingmed Ultrasound||ACD/CD||Mean LV basal strain −12% for CD and −13% for ACD||In patients with heart failure, mean LV basal strain was the only independent predictor of CD (−4.4%) and ACD (−4.6%)|
Strain rate and strain showed significant differences among the 3 groups (no cardiac involvement, cardiac amyloidosis without HF, cardiac amyloidosis and HF).
|Buss (9)||206 Systemic AL||60||46||52||iE33, Philips Medical Systems; TomTec Imaging Systems||ACD or cardiac transplant||LS −10.65% and 2D-GLS −11.78%||LS and 2D-GLS both offered significant incremental value compared with clinical variables (age, Karnofsky index, NYHA functional class) and serological biomarkers (NT-proBNP and cTNT)|
|Barros-Gomes (10)||150 Systemic AL||64||35||65||Vivid E9 GE Medical System; EchoPAC PC version 6.0, GE and Syngo VVI||ACD||GLSGE ≥−14.81% and GLSvvi ≥−15.02%||2D-STE predicted outcome in subjects with cardiac involvement and provided incremental prognostic information over the current prognostic staging system, which is based primarily on serum cTnT, NT-proBNP, and FLC-diff. Two methods of GLS were tested|
|Salinaro (11)||61 Cardiac AL||57||54||57||GE Vivid 7 echo system; GE EchoPAC||ACD||GLS ≥−10.2%||GLS predicted survival above cardiac biomarkers and detected early cardiac functional improvement following chemotherapy|
|Chuy (12)||94 Systemic AL Mayo stage III or IV||64||39||60||Vivid E9, GE and iE33, Philips; TomTec Imaging Systems||ACD||GLS ≥−14.2%||GLS had higher median survival and 5-yr survival rate and provided incremental value over BNP, Tn, and LVEF for predicting survival|
All strain values were systolic and longitudinal.
2D-GLS = 2-dimensional global longitudinal strain; 2D-STE = 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography; ACD = all cause death; AL = light chain amyloidosis; BNP = brain natriuretic peptide; CD = cardiac death; HF = heart failure; cTNT = cardiac troponin T; diff = difference; EF = ejection fraction; FLC = free light chain; FS = fractional shortening; LS = longitudinal strain; LV = left ventricular; NYHA = New York Heart Association; OS = overall survival; Tn = troponin; VVI = velocity vector imaging.